The focus of these studies has been on the island of Abaco and its off-lying cays. Most maps still show Great Abaco and Little Abaco separated by a narrow channel. In reality, however, the two islands have been connected by a short causeway for more than fifty years, and in current practice the name Abaco includes them both. In fact the island is now separated politically into northern, central and southern Abaco, without reference to “Great” and “Little”.   Abaco also includes the outlying small islands (cays), and collectively the entire area is often referred to as the Abacos.

It is not surprising, when looking at a map of the Bahamas (below), that there are species occurring elsewhere in the Bahamas that have not yet been recorded from Abaco.  Very little serious collecting has been done around the southern islands of Mayaguana and Inagua, for example, which are doubtless home to numerous additional species. More surprising, perhaps, is that there are a number of species that are not shared by the neighboring islands of Abaco and Grand Bahama (GBI). In some cases this is quite easily explained - for example the rocky promontories that are colonized by Fissurella nodosa in Abaco are absent from Grand Bahama, where that species is not found. Less easy to explain is the apparent absence of such species as Eulithidium adamsi from Grand Bahama that occur commonly in Abaco.  Likewise there are numerous species that have been recorded from Grand Bahama that have not yet been found in Abaco. Many such species were collected by Jack Worsfold in about 1970-1984, and I had an opportunity to photograph some of these in the early 1980s. Below are some of the photos that resulted from these sessions, together with photos of species from other sources. All of the figured shells were collected by Jack Worsfold unless otherwise noted.

                                                                                                                       Colin Redfern

Additional Records and notes




Cadulus podagrinus Henderson, 1920.

Length 3.75mm. One of eleven shells collected off GBI in 300m by Ben Rose in 1984.


Henderson aptly described the shell of this species as “much inflated, and suddenly contracting into a short pinched-in dorso-ventrally flattened neck”.


Previously known only from Antigua, the type locality.



Macromphalina worsfoldi Rolán & Rubio, 1998. Diameter 1.7mm. White.

The only published record of this species refers to the type series of 23 shells collected from beach drift, GBI.

One of those shells is figured above, including a basal view not provided in the original description.

Mitromica cosmani Rosenberg & Salisbury, 2003. 6.3mm. White with spiral rows of orange-brown patches. Holotype. One of 21 shells collected in about 25m off GBI in 1979-82. Also recorded from Eleuthera, Andros, New Providence and the Berry Islands.


Pyrunculus floridensis (Dall, 1927)

Length 4mm. Collected off GBI in 300m by Ben Rose in 1984.

Holotype measures 5.5mm, collected off Fernandina, Florida. Conspicuous columellar fold not present on juvenile shells.


Cyclostrema amabile (Dall, 1889). Diameter 6mm. White.  Live in sediment from 25m off GBI in 1980.


Cavilinga blanda (Dall, 1901). Width 8mm. One of eight valves collected off GBI in 300m by Ben Rose in 1984.

Spinosipella agnes Simone & Cunha, 2008. Immature 4.5mm valve. Dredged off Lucaya, GBI in 300m,  May, 1985. Prickles on ribs are one of the features that distinguish Spinosipella from Trigonulina.


Inella apexbilirata Rolán & Fernández-
Garcés, 2008

3.5mm. Holotype. One of five shells dredged from 300m off GBI in October, 1984.
The shell is whitish, and the specific name refers to the two spiral cords that begin at the tip of the protoconch.



Chama sinuosa  Broderip, 1835.
Diameter 45mm. Collected live from rocks near shore at Stella Maris, Long Island by Ed Bayer. Species lacks crenulations at inner margin of valves.
 


Cubalaskeya nivea (Faber, 2007).
7.25mm. One of several shells collected off GBI in about 25m.
First known record from the Bahamas. Previously recorded maximum size  6mm.

I am grateful to Marien Faber for the correct identification of this shell.


Heliacus worsfoldi Quinn, 1981.

Height 7mm, width 5.5mm.

In 12.2m off GBI. Live on a species of wire coral (Cirrapathes sp) that was encrusted with a grey zoanthid.


Zeidora bigelowi Farfante, 1947. 4mm. White. One of three shells collected in 25-53m off GBI in 1980. Two others dredged in 300m in 1984. Note Crepidula-like interior shelf.


Caecum breve de Folin, 1867.
2mm. White. Jack Worsfold collected this shell in 25m off GBI in 1982. Two years later he collected 134 live specimens from green algae in a canal on GBI.

For a photo of the holotype see Johnson (1989) in Occasional Papers on Mollusks, pl. 17, fig. 7.
Click here for synonymy of Caecum debile, explained by Harry Lee.


Inella longissima (Dall, 1881). 7mm, white. Dredged from 500m off GBI in 1985. This species was redescribed by Rolán & Fernandez-Garcés (2008). Maximum recorded length is 27.9mm.


Glyphostoma herminea Bartsch, 1934.

8mm. Dredged from 300m off GBI in 1984.

Known from Florida to Brazil, but not previously recorded from the Bahamas.


Cadulus tersus Henderson, 1920.
Length 3mm. One of 5 shells dredged off GBI in 300m in 1984. A live specimen was also collected from the same depth.

The holotype measures 3.1mm and was collected off Barbados in 33 fathoms. Henderson recorded one other specimen in the USNM collection, collected off Barbados in 40-75 fathoms.



Niso aeglees Bush, 1885.

5.5mm. Creamy white with brown line at sutures and periphery of body whorl

Dredged from 500m off GBI in 1985.



Volvulella minuta (Bush, 1885).
3.5mm.
One of three shells dredged by Ben Rose off GBI in 300m, June 1984.
For taxonomic comments see Lee (2009, “Marine Shells of Northeast Florida”, p. 155).



Pilsbryspira nodata (C. B. Adams, 1850).

Not measured.

One of a number of specimens collected on GBI . Most were collected live at night in very shallow water.

P. albomaculata (d’Orbigny, 1847) is a synonym.


Glyphoturris diminuta
(C.B.Adams, 1850).
8mm. Grey-brown.
One of three specimens collected live under a rock at the edge of a canal on GBI.
Identification confirmed by Virginia Maes July, 1982.



Cosmotriphora arnoldoi Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991.

3mm. White, with orange patches. Protoconch brown. Beach drift, GBI.

Holotype and one paratype were collected from Bonaire and Curaçao.


Monogamus  minibulla (Olsson & McGinty, 1958). Maximum diameter about 1mm. Figured shell from beach drift on GBI, but also found living there intertidally on sea urchins. Originally described in genus Rosenia, but referred to Monogamus by Warén & Moolenbeek (1989).


Opalia crenata (Linnaeus, 1758).
9 mm. This is a rare species in the northern Bahamas. The figured shell was collected crabbed in 12 m off GBI.


Eulima fulvocincta C.B. Adams, 1850.
4mm.

Collected from GBI by Jack Worsfold. Spiral color band below periphery of body whorl and non-

constricted apex help to distinguish this species from E. auricincta.


Miralda sp ?
3.5mm.

Collected in 25m off GBI  in 1981.

Pyramidellid genus uncertain.


Fargoa sp.
3mm.

Numerous specimens collected on GBI near entrance to sabellid worm tubes in canals in less than 1m.   One emitted yellow fluid when disturbed.


Terebra sp.
4.25mm.

One of two similar shells collected by Ben Rose from 300m off GBI in 1984.



Turbonilla sp.
9.5mm.

This unusually long, white Turbonilla was collected off Freeport, GBI in 10m.


Schwatrziella catesbyana (d’Orbigny, 1842).
4mm. White, with faint brown band just below suture. Live-collected on GBI, where it commonly lives in algae or under rocks in less than 1m in canals.


Hesperisternia karinae (Usticke, 1959).   Not measured.

One of three specimens found living under rocks in 9m at GBI.


Fastigiella carinata Reeve, 1848. 27mm shell collected by Everett Long in 2m, shoreward side of reef at Andros. Species also recorded from New Providence, Eleuthera, Cat Island and Exumas.


Turrid sp.
3.75mm.
One of two shells dredged by Ben Rose from 300m off GBI in 1984. Another shell in sediment scooped via submersible in 465m off Memory Rock,
GBI in 1986.
Genus unknown
.


Alvania colombiana Romer & Moore, 1988. 1.25mm. Dredged off GBI in 300m by Ben Rose in June, 1984. For description see Nautilus 102(4):131-133.


Vitreolina sp.

5mm.
Translucent white.

Dredged from 300m off GBI by Ben Rose.

Assignment to Vitreolina is tentative.


Palliolum sp. Width 6.5mm.
No color recorded. Semi-translucent with a few small opaque patches. One of three valves dredged from 300m off GBI.



Pleurotomella sp.
2.5mm.
Dredged off Lucaya, GBI in 300m.

Protoconch of about 4 whorls with cross-hatched sculpture.


Turrid sp.
5mm.

Figured shell dredged from 500m off GBI in 1985. Another shell in sediment scooped via submersible in 550m off Freeport, GBI in 1987.
Genus unknown.



Limid sp.  Width 6mm.  White.
One of four valves dredged from 300m off Lucaya, GBI in 1984/5.  Seven other valves dredged from 60-75m off Lucaya in 1984.


Cardiomya sp.
Length 5 mm. One of two valves dredged by Ben Rose in 300m off GBI in 1984.

Five additional valves were scooped via submersible in 465m off GBI in June, 1986.



Limopsis sp.  Height 5mm. White.
Dredged by Ben Rose from 300m off GBI in 1984. Three additional valves scooped via submersible in 550m off Freeport, GBI in 1987.



Atlanta brunnea Gray, 1850.
1.5mm. Light brown.
Figured shell collected from beach drift on GBI in 1982.
Atlanta fusca Souleyet, 1852 is a synonym.


Cadulus catharus Henderson, 1920.
Length 9.5mm.

Dredged live off GBI in 300m, October, 1984.

The holotype measures 8.6mm and was dredged in 120 fathoms off Antigua in 1898 - (a distance of about 1300 miles from GBI).


Cadulus platensis Henderson, 1920

Length 3mm. One of two shells dredged from 300m off GBI in 1984.

Recorded from Georgia to Argentina, but not previously from the Bahamas.


Diodora sarasuae Espinosa, 1984.
11.5mm. Dark olive-green. One of seven shells dredged from 300m off Lucaya, GBI in 1984.

Described from Havana, currently only known from Cuba and GBI.




Caryocorbula sp.    Length 5mm.
In sediment from 35m off GBI. Other valves collected to 55m, with one live specimen in sediment from 40m.


Calliostoma orion Dall, 1889.
Figure reproduced from Dall (1889, pl. 28, fig. 2).
In 1980/81 Jack Worsfold collected numerous specimens living in the tubes of sponges (probably
Callyspongia sp) off GBI in 15-37m.



Microstelma gabbi (Dall,1889)

Figure repro-duced  from Dall (1889, pl. 29, fig. 7). For photo of holotype see Ponder (1985, fig. 68E in Recs. of Aust. Mus. Supplement 4).  


Ten shells collected in 1986 from sediment scooped via submersible off GBI in 465 m. Largest 3.9 mm. First record of this species outside of type locality (St. Vincent, Caribbean).


Caecum brasilicum Folin, 1874.
2mm. Creamy white.
Live in sediment from 9m in Freeport harbor, GBI in 1983. The same sediment sample contained 102 additional examples of this species, some of which were also live.

Other live specimens collected from intertidal algae in a canal on GBI.



Nassarius karinae Usticke, 1971.
5.5mm. White, with brown spots and faint bands. One of 50 shells collected from sediment in about 23m off GBI in 1980-83.


Solatisonax sigsbeei (Dall, 1889).
One shell, diameter 3.6mm, was dredged off GBI in about 300m in October, 1984. Figures reproduced from Dall (1889, pl. 23, figs, 3-3a).

     All photos on this site © Bahamianseashells.com, Inc           mail@colinredfern.com

Megadenus holothuricola Rosén, 1910


This is perhaps the rarest known shallow-water species in the Bahamas. Megadenus holothuricola was described from the Bahamas in 1910 from five specimens that were found living in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Holothuria mexicana. Warén (1984) reported that the type material is lost. I know of no published records of this eulimid having been rediscovered since its original description, two photos from which are reproduced (in part) above. These photos of the species in situ show a small white conical shell with what appears to be a cylindrical protoconch of two narrow whorls. Subsequent whorls enlarge rapidly. If anybody has any additional information on this species, I’d be glad to add it here.

This is species 728 in Bahamian Seashells: 1161 Species from Abaco, Bahamas (“BS2”), where it was tentatively identified as Chelidonura africana. The apical portion of the internal shell was illustrated by a digital photo, but here (below, right) the same shell fragment is shown via SEM, courtesy of Dr. Ángel Valdés. The triangular extension of the protoconch is important, as it serves to distinguish this species from C. berolina and C. normani, both of which were recorded from the Bahamas by Ornelas-Gatdula et al. (2011 - see Literature Cited in BS2). The identity of the figured specimen remains uncertain, but triangular extensions have been shown to be present on the protoconchs of C. africana and C. mariagordae by Ortea et al. (2012 - see New Papers page).

Below is the specimen of Chelidonura normani figured in BS2 (species 731). Dr. Valdés had previously confirmed the identity of this specimen via DNA sequencing and has now kindly supplied an SEM of the internal shell, which was illustrated in BS2 by a digital photo.

Please scroll to bottom of page for notes on Chelidonura africana and Chelidonura normani.